dijana

Boginja plodnosti, materinstva i divljači. Njeno ime izvedeno je od indoevropskog korena di (sijati). Stoga je ona, kao i Jupiter, Junona, Janus, Jana …  jedna od boginja nebeske svjetlosti, zbog čega je kasnije poistovjećena sa Lunom, rimskom boginjom Mjeseca.   Zato je Dijanine prvobitne funkcije mnogo lakše otkriti u njenim kultovima van Rima.   U Kampaniji je poštovana Dijana Tifatina, koja je smatrana gospodaricom jedne šume u blizini Kapue i zaštitnicom lova. Njeno drugo, mnogo čuvenije svetilište nalazilo se u Ariciji, pokraj malog jezera Nemi. Tu se o Dijaninom kultu starao sveštenik, kralj šume (rex Nemorensis). Preuzimanje te svešteničke dužnosti bilo je povezano sa jednim čudnim običajem: svaki novi sveštenik, pošto bi uzabrao jednu granu sa određenog drveta, morao je da ubije svog prethodnika, uvijek budnog i spremnog za odbranu. Taj okrutni postupak objašnjavan je predanjem da je Dijana, poštovana u Ariciji, u stvari Tauridska Artemida, kojoj su godile ljudske žrtve. U Ariciji je sa Dijanom poštovan i Virbije, vjerovatno njen prvi sveštenik, koji je kasnije poistovećen sa Hipolitom.

Dijanin sveti gaj u Ariciji bio je jedno od najposjećenijih kultnih mesta na italskom tlu, a njen tamošnji hram – jedno od najbogatijih svetilišta. Brojni zavjetni darovi nađeni u Nemiju (vulve, falusi, statue žena koje doje decu) pokazuju da je tu boginja poštovana prvenstveno kao zaštitnica žena, spremna da uvek pomogne porodiljama i dojiljama. Dijanin praznik slavljen je u Ariciji svake godine 13. avgusta.

Servije Tulije prenio je Dijanin kult iz Aricije u Rim i podigao joj prvo svetilište na Aventinu. Aventinska Dijana bila je zaštitnica Latinskog saveza. Godišnjica posvećivanja tog hrama smatrana je praznikom robova (servorum dies). U Rimu je ta italska Dijana postepeno helenizovana i na velikom lektisternijumu (svečana gozba namenjena bogovima) 399. godine stare ere, poistovjećena je sa grčkom boginjom Artemidom. Osim aventinskog, Dijani su u Rimu podignuta i druga svetilišta, u njen hram koji se nalazio između Viminala i Eskvilina imale su pristup samo žene.

U rimskoj literaturi i umjetnosti lik boginje Dijane je helenizovan. Dijanina kultna statua u hramu na Aventinu rađena je po uzoru na statuu Efeske Artemide. I ostale njene predstave, bilo da je prikazana u kratkoj tunici i sa lukom bilo sa buktinjama i zmijama u rukama, rađene su prema ikonografskim obrascima grčke umjetnosti.

U rimskim provincijama pod Dijaninim imenom poštovana su razna domorodačka božanstva, uglavnom boginje šuma i lova. Bila je posebno omiljena u Dalmaciji, gdje je poštovana i kao boginja neobrađenog zemljišta i međa koja dijele polja od šuma i nepouzdanih sila u svakodnevnom životu.

 

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